2019年雅思阅读理解精选试题及答案
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1、SellingDigitalMusicwithoutCopy-protectionMakesSense A. Itwasuncharacteristicallylow-keyfortheindustry’sgreatestshowman.ButtheessaypublishedthisweekbySteveJobs,thebossofApple,onhisfirm’swebsiteundertheunassumingtitle“ThoughtsonMusic”hasnonethelessprovokedavigorousdebateaboutthefutureofdigitalmusic,whichAppledominateswithitsiPodmusic-playerandiTunesmusic-store.Atissueis“digitalrightsmanagement”(DRM)—thetechnologyguardingdownloadedmusicagainsttheft.SincethereisnocommonstandardforDRM,italsohastheside-effectthatsongspurchasedforonetypeofmusic-playermaynotworkonanother.Apple’sDRMsystem,calledFairPlay,isthemostwidespread.SoitcameasasurprisewhenMr.JobscalledforDRMfordigitalmusictobeabolished. B. ThisisachangeoftackforApple.IthascomeunderfirefromEuropeanregulatorswhoclaimthatitsrefusaltolicenseFairPlaytootherfirmshas“lockedin”customers.SincemusicfromtheiTunesstorecannotbeplayedonnon-iPodmusic-players(atleastnotwithoutalotoffiddling),anyiTunesbuyerwillbedeterredfromswitchingtoadevicemadebyarivalfirm,suchasSonyorMicrosoft.WhenFrenchlawmakersdraftedabilllastyearcompellingAppletoopenupFairPlaytorivals,thecompanywarnedof“state-sponsoredpiracy”.OnlyDRM,itimplied,couldkeepthepiratesatbay. C. ThisweekMr.JobsgaveanotherexplanationforhisformerdefenceofDRM:therecordcompaniesmadehimdoit.TheywouldmaketheirmusicavailabletotheiTunesstoreonlyifAppleagreedtoprotectitusingDRM.TheycanstillwithdrawtheircataloguesiftheDRMsystemiscompromised.ApplecannotlicenseFairPlaytoothers,saysMrJobs,becauseitwoulddependonthemtoproducesecurityfixespromptly.AllDRMdoesisrestrictconsumerchoiceandprovideabarriertoentry,saysMrJobs;withoutittherewouldbefarmorestoresandplayers,andfarmoreinnovation.So,hesuggests,whynotdoawaywithDRMandsellmusicunprotected?“Thisisclearlythebestalternativeforconsumers,”hedeclares,“andApplewouldembraceitinaheartbeat.” D. Whythesuddenchangeofheart?MrJobsseemschieflyconcernedwithgettingEurope’sregulatorsoffhisback.RatherthancomplainingtoAppleaboutitsuseofDRM,hesuggests,“thoseunhappywiththecurrentsituationshouldredirecttheirenergiestowardspersuadingthemusiccompaniestoselltheirmusicDRM-free.”Twoandahalfofthefourbigrecordcompanies,hehelpfullypointsout,areEuropean-owned.MrJobsalsohopestopainthimselfasaconsumerchampion.AppleresentsaccusationsthatithasbecometheMicrosoftofdigitalmusic. E. Applecanaffordtoembraceopencompetitioninmusicplayersandonlinestores.Consumerswouldgravitatetothebestplayerandthebeststore,andatthemomentthatstillmeansApple’s.MrJobsisevidentlyunfazedbyrivalstotheiPod.Sinceonly3%ofthemusicinatypicaliTuneslibraryisprotected,mostofitcanalreadybeusedonotherplayerstoday,henotes.(AndeventheprotectedtrackscanbeburnedontoaCDandthenre-ripped.)SoApple’sdominanceevidentlydependsfarmoreonbrandingandeaseofusethanDRM-related“lockin”. F. ThemusicgiantsaretryingDRM-freedownloads.Lotsofsmallerlabelsalreadysellmusicthatway.Havingseenwhichwaythewindisblowing,MrJobsnowwantstobeseennotasDRM’sdefender,butasaconsumerchampionwhohelpedinitsdownfall.Wouldn’titleadtoasurgeinpiracy?No,becausemostmusicisstillsoldunprotectedonCDs,peoplewishingtostealmusicalreadycandoso.Indeed,scrappingDRMwouldprobablyincreaseonline-musicsalesbyreducingconfusionandincompatibility.Withtheleadingonlinestore,Applewouldbenefitmost.MrJobs’sargument,inshort,istransparentlyself-serving.Italsohappenstoberight. NotestoReadingPassage1 1.low-key: 抑制的,受约束的,屈服的 2.showman: 开展览会的人,出风头的人物 3.unassuming: 谦逊的,不夸耀的,不装腔作势的 4.iPod: (苹果公司出产的)音乐播放器 5.iTunesstore: (苹果公司出产的)在线音乐商店 6.getoffperson’sback: 不再找某人的麻烦,摆脱某人的纠缠 7.gravitate: 受吸引,倾向于 8.unfazed: 不再担忧,不被打扰 Questions1-7 DothefollowingstatemetsreflecttheclaimsofthewriterinReadingPassage1? WriteyouranswerinBoxes1-7onyouranswersheet. TRUEifthestatementrefletstheclaimsofthewriter FALSEifthestatementcontradictstheclaimsofthewriter NOTGIVENifitisimpossbiletosaywhatthewriterthinksaboutthis 1.AppleenjoysacontrollingpositionindigitalmusicmarketwithitsiPodmusic-playerandiTunesmusic-store. 2.DRMisagovernmentdecreeissuedwithapurposetoprotectdownloadedmusicfromtheftbyconsumers. 3.LackofstandardizationinDRMmakessongsboughtforonekindofmusicplayermaynotfunctiononanother. 4.ApplehasbeencriticizedbyEuropeanregulatorssinceithasrefusedtograntalicenseFairPlaytootherfirms. 5.Allmusiccanbeeasilyplayedonnon-iPodmusicdevicesfromSonyorMicrosoftwithouttoomuchfiddling. 6.AppledependsfarmoreonDRMratherthanbrandingforitsdominanceofthedigitalmusicdevices. 7.IfDRMwascancelled,Sonywouldcertainlydominatetheinternationaldigitalmusicmarket. Questions8-10 ChoosetheappropriatelettersA-Dandwritetheminboxes8-10onyouranswesheet. 8.WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutMr.Jobs’ideaofDRMisNOTTRUE? A.DRMplacesrestrictionsonconsumer’choiceofdigitalmusicproductsavailable. B.DRMcomplesiTunesbuyerstoswitchtoadevicemadebySonyorMicrosoft. C.DRMconstitutesabarrierforpotentialconsumerstoenterdigitalmusicmarkets. D.DRMhindersdevelopmentofmorestoresandplayersandtechnicalinnovation. 9.Theword“unfazed”inline3ofparagraphE,means___________. A.refused B.welcomed C.notbothered D.notwellreceived 10.WhichofthefollowingstatementsisTRUEifDRMwasscapped? A.Sonywouldgainthemostprofit. B.Morecustomerswouldbe“lockedin”. C.Asuddenincreaseinpiracywouldoccur. D.Online-musicsaleswouldprobablydecrease. Questions11-14 Completethenotesbelow. ChooseNOMORETHANTHREEWORDSfromReadingPassage1foreachanswer. Writeyouranswersinboxes11-14onyouranswersheet. Mr.SteveJobs,thebossofApple,explainsthereasonwhyheusedtodefendDRM,sayingthatthecompanywasforcedtodoso:therecordcompanieswouldmaketheirmusicaccessibleto…11...onlyiftheyagreedtoprotectitusingDRM;theycanstill…12…iftheDRMsystemiscompromised.HealsoprovidesthereasonwhyAppledidnotlicenseFairPlaytoothers:thecompanyreliesonthemto…13….ButnowhechangeshismindwithapossibleexpectationthatEurope’sregulatorswouldnottroublehimanymoreinthefuture.Heproposesthatthosewhoareunsatisfactorywiththecurrentsituationindigitalmusicmarketshould…14…towardspersuadethemusiccompaniestoselltheirmusicDRM-free.
2、newweapontofightcancer 1.Britishscientistsarepreparingtolaunchtrialsofaradicalnewwaytofightcancer,whichkillstumoursbyinfectingthemwithviruseslikethecommoncold. 2.Ifsuccessful,virustherapycouldeventuallyformathirdpillaralongsideradiotherapyandchemotherapyinthestandardarsenalagainstcancer,whileavoidingsomeofthedebilitatingside-effects. 3.LeonardSeymour,aprofessorofgenetherapyatOxfordUniversity,whohasbeenworkingonthevirustherapywithcolleaguesinLondonandtheUS,willleadthetrialslaterthisyear.CancerResearchUKsaidyesterdaythatitwasexcitedbythepotentialofProfSeymour’spioneeringtechniques. 4.Oneofthecountry’sleadinggeneticists,ProfSeymourhasbeenworkingwithvirusesthatkillcancercellsdirectly,whileavoidingharmtohealthytissue."Inprinciple,you’vegotsomethingwhichcouldbemanytimesmoreeffectivethanregularchemotherapy,"hesaid. 5.Cancer-killingvirusesexploitthefactthatcancercellssuppressthebody’slocalimmunesystem."Ifacancerdoesn’tdothat,theimmunesystemwipesitout.Ifyoucangetavirusintoatumour,virusesfindthemaverygoodplacetobebecausethere’snoimmunesystemtostopthemreplicating.Youcanregarditasthecancer’sAchilles’heel." 6.Onlyasmallamountofthevirusneedstogettothecancer."Theyreplicate,yougetamillioncopiesineachcellandthecellburstsandtheyinfectthetumourcellsadjacentandrepeattheprocess,"saidProfSeymour. 7.Preliminaryresearchonmiceshowsthatthevirusesworkwellontumoursresistanttostandardcancerdrugs."It’saninterestingpossibilitythattheymayhaveanadvantageinkillingdrug-resistanttumours,whichcouldbequitedifferenttoanythingwe’vehadbefore." 8.Researchershaveknownforsometimethatvirusescankilltumourcellsandsomeaspectsoftheworkhavealreadybeenpublishedinscientificjournals.Americanscientistshavepreviouslyinjectedvirusesdirectlyintotumoursbutthistechniquewillnotworkifthecancerisinaccessibleorhasspreadthroughoutthebody. 9.ProfSeymour’sinnovativesolutionistomaskthevirusfromthebody’simmunesystem,effectivelyallowingthevirusestodowhatchemotherapydrugsdo-spreadthroughthebloodandreachtumourswherevertheyare.Thebighurdlehasalwaysbeentofindawaytodelivervirusestotumoursviathebloodstreamwithoutthebody’simmunesystemdestroyingthemontheway. 10."Whatwe’vedoneismakechemicalmodificationstothevirustoputapolymercoataroundit-it’sastealthviruswhenyouinjectit,"hesaid. 11.Afterthestealthvirusinfectsthetumour,itreplicates,butthecopiesdonothavethechemicalmodifications.Iftheyescapefromthetumour,thecopieswillbequicklyrecognisedandmoppedupbythebody’simmunesystem. 12.Thetherapywouldbeespeciallyusefulforsecondarycancers,calledmetastases,whichsometimesspreadaroundthebodyafterthefirsttumourappears."There’sanawfulstatisticofpatientsinthewest...withmalignantcancers;75%ofthemgoontodiefrommetastases,"saidProfSeymour. 13.Twovirusesarelikelytobeexaminedinthefirstclinicaltrials:adenovirus,whichnormallycausesacold-likeillness,andvaccinia,whichcausescowpoxandisalsousedinthevaccineagainstsmallpox.Forsafetyreasons,bothwillbedisabledtomakethemlesspathogenicinthetrial,butProfSeymoursaidheeventuallyhopestousenaturalviruses. 14.Thefirsttrialswilluseuncoatedadenovirusandvacciniaandwillbedeliveredlocallytolivertumours,inordertoestablishwhetherthetreatmentissafeinhumansandwhatdoseofviruswillbeneeded.Severalmoreyearsoftrialswillbeneeded,eventuallyalsoonthepolymer-coatedviruses,beforethetherapycanbeconsideredforuseintheNHS.Thoughtheapproachwillbeexaminedatfirstforcancersthatdonotrespondtoconventionaltreatments,ProfSeymourhopesthatonedayitmightbeappliedtoallcancers. Questions1-6 Dothefollowingstatementsagreewiththeinformationgiveninthereadingpassage?Forquestions1-6write TRUEifthestatementagreeswiththeinformation FALSEifthestatementcontradictstheinformation NOTGIVENifthereisnoinformationonthisinthepassage 1.Virustherapy,ifsuccessful,hasanadvantageineliminatingside-effects. 2.CancerResearchUKisquitehopefulaboutProfessorSeymour’sworkonthevirustherapy. 3.Viruscankillcancercellsandstopthemfromgrowingagain. 4.Cancer’sAchilles’heelreferstothefactthatvirusmaystaysafelyinatumorandreplicate. 5.Toinfectthecancercells,agooddealofvirusesshouldbeinjectedintothetumor. 6.Researchesonanimalsindicatethatviruscouldbeusedasanewwaytotreatdrug-resistanttumors. Question7-9 Basedonthereadingpassage,choosetheappropriateletterfromA-Dforeachanswer. 7.Informationaboutresearchesonviruseskillingtumorcellscanbefound (A)onTV (B)inmagazines (C)oninternet (D)innewspapers 8.Totreattumorsspreadingoutinbody,researcherstryto (A)changethebody’immunesystem (B)injectchemotherapydrugsintobloodstream. (C)increasetheamountofinjection (D)disguisethevirusesonthewaytotumors. 9.Whenthechemicalmodifiedvirusintumorreplicates,thecopies (A)willsoonescapefromthetumorandspreadout. (B)willbewipedoutbythebody’simmunesystem. (C)willbeimmediatelyrecognizedbytheresearchers. (D)willeventuallystopthetumorfromspreadingout. Questions10-13 Completethesentencesbelow.Chooseyouranswersfromthelistofwords.Youcanonlyuseeachwordonce. NBTherearemorewordsinthelistthanspacessoyouwillnotusethemall. Inthefirstclinicaltrials,scientistswilltryto……10……adenovirusandvaccinia,soboththeviruseswillbelesspathogenicthanthe……11…….Theseuncoatedviruseswillbeapplieddirectlytocertainareastoconfirmsafetyonhumanbeingsandtheright……12……needed.Theexperimentswillfirstlybe……13……tothetreatmentofcertaincancers
3、HowaFrenchmanisrevivingMcDonald’sinEurope A.WhenDenisHennequintookoverastheEuropeanbossofMcDonald’sinJanuary2004,theworld’sbiggestrestaurantchainwasshowingsignsofrecoveryinAmericaandAustralia,butsalesinEuropeweresluggishordeclining.OneexceptionwasFrance,whereMrHennequinhaddoneasterlingjobasheadofthegroup’sFrenchsubsidiarytosellmoreBigMacstohiscompatriots.Histaskwastoreplicatethissuccessinall41oftheEuropeancountrieswhereanti-globalisers’favouriteenemyoperates. B.SofarMrHennequinisdoingwell.LastyearEuropeansalesincreasedby5.8%andthenumberofcustomersby3.4%,thebestannualresultsinnearly15years.Europeaccountedfor36%ofthegroup’sprofitsandfor28%ofitssales.DecemberwasanespeciallygoodmonthascustomerstooktoseasonalmenuofferingsinFranceandBritain,andtoapromotioninGermanybasedonthegameofMonopoly. C.MrHennequin’srecipeforrevivalistobemoreopenabouthiscompany’soperations,tobe“locallyrelevant”,andtoimprovetheexperienceofvisitinghis6,400restaurants.McDonald’sisblamedformakingpeoplefat,exploitingworkers,treatinganimalscruelly,pollutingtheenvironmentandsimplyforbeingAmerican.MrHennequinsayshewantstoengageinadialoguewiththepublictoaddresstheseconcerns. D.Heintroduced“opendoor”visitordaysineachcountrywhichbecamehugelypopular.InPolandalonesome50,000visitorscametoMcDonald’sthroughthevisitors’programmelastyear.TheNutritionInformationInitiative,launchedlastyear,putdetailedlabelsonMcDonald’spackagingwithdataoncalories,protein,fat,carbohydratesandsaltcontent.Thedetailsarealsoprintedontray-liners. E.MrHennequinalsowantspeopletoknowthat“McJobs”,thelow-paidmenialjobsatMcDonald’srestaurants,aremuchbetterthanpeoplethink.Butsomeofhiseffortshavebackfired:lastyearhesparkedacontroversywiththeintroductionofa“McPassport”thatallowsMcDonald’semployeestoworkanywhereintheEuropeanUnion.PoliticiansaccusedthefirmofaploytomakecheaplabourfromeasternEuropemoreeasilyavailabletoMcDonald’smanagersacrossthecontinent. F.Tostayintouchwithlocalneedsandpreferences,McDonald’semployslocalbossesasmuchaspossible.ARussianisrunningMcDonald’sinRussia,thoughaSerbisinchargeofGermany.Thegroupbuysmainlyfromlocalsuppliers.Four-fifthsofitssuppliesinFrancecomefromlocalfarmers,forexample.(SomeoftheFrenchfarmerswhocampaignedagainstthecompanyinthelate1990ssubsequentlydiscoveredthatitwas,infact,buyingtheirproduce.)AndithirescelebritiessuchasHeidiKlum,aGermanmodel,aslocalbrandambassadors. G.InhispreviousjobMrHennequinestablisheda“designstudio”inFrancetospruceuphiscompany’sdrabrestaurantsandadapttheinteriortolocaltastes.ThestudioisnowmastermindingimprovementseverywhereinEurope.Healsosetupa“foodstudio”,wherecooksdevisenewrecipesinresponsetolocaltrends. H.GivenFrance’sreputationasthemostanti-AmericancountryinEurope,itseemsoddthatMcDonald’srevivalinEuropeisbeingledbyaFrenchman,usingideascookedupintheFrenchmarket.ButFranceisinfactthecompany’smostprofitablemarketafterAmerica.ThemarketwhereMcDonald’sisweakestinEuropeisnotFrance,butBritain. I.“FixingBritainshouldbehispriority,”saysDavidPalmer,arestaurantanalystatUBS.Almosttwo-thirdsofthe1,214McDonald’srestaurantsinBritainarecompany-owned,comparedwith40%inEuropeand15%inAmerica.Thecompanysuffersfromthevolatilityofsalesatitsownrestaurants,butcanrelyonsteadyincomefromfranchisees.Soitshouldsellasmanyunderperformingoutletsaspossible,saysMrPalmer. J.M.MarkWiltamuth,ananalystatMorganStanley,estimatesthatEuropeancompany-ownedrestaurants’marginswillincreaseslightlyto16.4%in2007.Thisisstilllessthaninthelate1990sandbelowAmerica’s18-19%today.ButitismuchbetterthanbeforeMrHennequin’sreign.HeisalreadybeingtippedasthefirstEuropeancandidateforthegroup’stopjobinIllinois.NobodywouldcallthataMcJob. NotestoReadingPassage1 1.sterling高质量的 e.g.Hehasmanysterlingqualities.他身上有许多优秀的品质。 2.menial不体面的,乏味的(工作、职业) 3.spruceup打扮整齐、漂亮、装饰 4.mastermind指挥、谋划(一个计划或活动) e.g.Thepoliceknowwhomastermindedtherobbery.警察知道是谁策划了那次抢劫。 5.underperform表现不佳表现出低于标准的工作水平、企业出现亏本 Questions1-6 DothefollowingstatementsreflecttheclaimsofthewriterinReadingPassage1? WriteyouranswerinBoxes1-6onyouranswersheet. TRUEifthestatementreflectstheclaimsofthewriter FALSEifthestatementcontradictstheclaimsofthewriter NOTGIVENifitisimpossibletosaywhatthewriterthinksaboutthis 1.McDonaldwasshowingthesignofrecoveryinallEuropeancountriesexceptFranceafterDenisHennequintookofficeasthebossofEuro-markets. 2.Startingfromlastyear,detailedlabelsareputonMcDonald’spackaginganddetailedinformationisalsoprintedontray-liners. 3.Franceissaidtobethemostanti-AmericancountryinEurope,buttheideasofthe“opendoor”visitingdaysand“McPassport”areinventedintheFrenchmarket. 4.BritainpossessestheweakestMcDonaldmarketamongEuropeancountriesandapproximately1214McDonald’srestaurantsarecompany-owned. 5.AccordingtoDavidPalmer,arestaurantanalystatUBS,DavidHennequinshouldtreattheproblemaboutMcDonaldinBritainasthemostimportantthing. 6.DavidPalmersuggestedthatthemanagementofMcDonalodinItalyshouldsellasmanyitsoutletswhichlosemoneyinbusinessaspossibleforrevival. Questions7-10 ChoosetheappropriatelettersA-Dandwritetheminboxes7-10onyouranswesheet. 7.Theword“sterling”inline3ofParagraphAmeans__________. A.difficult B.menial C.terrible D.excellent 8.WhichofthefollowingstatementsontheaccusationofMacDonaldisNOTTRUE? A.Ittendstomakepeoplefat. B.Itsoperationsareveryvague. C.Ittendstoexploitworkers. D.Ittendstotreatanimalscruelly. 9.WhichofthefollowingmeasurestakenbyDenisHennequinproducedundesiredresult? A.“FoodStudio”scheme. B.“OpenDoor”visitordays. C.The“McPassport”scheme. D.TheNutritionInformationInitiative. 10.WhatdidDenisHennequindosoastorespondtolocaltrends? A.setupa“FoodStudio”. B.establisheda“DesignStudio”. C.hiredcelebritiesaslocalbrandambassadors. D.employedlocalbossesasmuchaspossible. Questions11-14 Completeeachofthefollowingstatements(Questions11-14)withwordsornumbertakenfromReadingPassage1. WriteNOMORETHANTHREEWORDSforeachanswer. Writeyouranswersinboxes11-14onyouranswersheet. 11.AfterJanuary2004,McDonaldwasmakingimprovementfollowingaperiodofslumpinAmericaandAustralia,butsalesinEuropewere…………………………. 12.BusinessofMcDonaldinFranceandBritainwasparticularlygoodinDecembersincecustomerstookto…………………………….. 13.Comparedwithothercountries,FranceisMcDonald’s……………………….nexttoAmerica. 14.…………………….ofMcDonald’srestaurantsinAmericaarecompanied–ownedandthefigureismuchlowerthanthatinBritain.
4、1There'sadimmerswitchinsidethesunthatcausesitsbrightnesstoriseandfallontimescalesofaround100,000years-exactlythesameperiodasbetweeniceagesonEarth.Sosaysaphysicistwhohascreatedacomputermodelofourstar'score. 2RobertEhrlichofGeorgeMasonUniversityinFairfax,Virginia,modelledtheeffectoftemperaturefluctuationsinthesun'sinterior.Accordingtothestandardview,thetemperatureofthesun'scoreisheldconstantbytheopposingpressuresofgravityandnuclearfusion.However,Ehrlichbelievedthatslightvariationsshouldbepossible. 3HetookashisstartingpointtheworkofAttilaGrandpierreoftheKonkolyObservatoryoftheHungarianAcademyofSciences.In2005,Grandpierreandacollaborator,Gáborágoston,calculatedthatmagneticfieldsinthesun'scorecouldproducesmallinstabilitiesinthesolarplasma.Theseinstabilitieswouldinducelocalisedoscillationsintemperature. 4Ehrlich'smodelshowsthatwhilstmostoftheseoscillationscanceleachotherout,somereinforceoneanotherandbecomelong-livedtemperaturevariations.Thefavouredfrequenciesallowthesun'scoretemperaturetooscillatearounditsaveragetemperatureof13.6millionkelvinincycleslastingeither100,000or41,000years.Ehrlichsaysthatrandominteractionswithinthesun'smagneticfieldcouldflipthefluctuationsfromonecyclelengthtotheother. 5ThesetwotimescalesareinstantlyrecognisabletoanyonefamiliarwithEarth'siceages:forthepastmillionyears,iceageshaveoccurredroughlyevery100,000years.Beforethat,theyoccurredroughlyevery41,000years. 6MostscientistsbelievethattheiceagesaretheresultofsubtlechangesinEarth'sorbit,knownastheMilankovitchcycles.OnesuchcycledescribesthewayEarth'sorbitgraduallychangesshapefromacircletoaslightellipseandbackagainroughlyevery100,000years.ThetheorysaysthisalterstheamountofsolarradiationthatEarthreceives,triggeringtheiceages.However,apersistentproblemwiththistheoryhasbeenitsinabilitytoexplainwhytheiceageschangedfrequencyamillionyearsago. 7"InMilankovitch,thereiscertainlynogoodideawhythefrequencyshouldchangefromonetoanother,"saysNeilEdwards,aclimatologistattheOpenUniversityinMiltonKeynes,UK.NoristhetransitionproblemtheonlyonetheMilankovitchtheoryfaces.EhrlichandothercriticsclaimthatthetemperaturevariationscausedbyMilankovitchcyclesaresimplynotbigenoughtodriveiceages. 8However,EdwardsbelievesthesmallchangesinsolarheatingproducedbyMilankovitchcyclesarethenamplifiedbyfeedbackmechanismsonEarth.Forexample,ifseaicebeginstoformbecauseofaslightcooling,carbondioxidethatwouldotherwisehavefounditswayintotheatmosphereaspartofthecarboncycleislockedintotheice.ThatweakensthegreenhouseeffectandEarthgrowsevencolder. 9AccordingtoEdwards,thereisnolackofsuchmechanisms."Ifyouaddtheireffectstogether,thereismorethanenoughfeedbacktomakeMilankovitchwork,"hesays."Theproblemnowisidentifyingwhichmechanismsareatwork."ThisiswhyscientistslikeEdwardsarenotyetreadytogiveuponthecurrenttheory."Milankovitchcyclesgiveusiceagesroughlywhenweobservethemtohappen.Wecancalculatewhereweareinthecycleandcompareitwithobservation,"hesays."Ican'tseeanywayoftesting[Ehrlich's]ideatoseewhereweareinthetemperatureoscillation." 10Ehrlichconcedesthis."Ifthereisawaytotestthistheoryonthesun,Ican'tthinkofonethatispractical,"hesays.That'sbecausevariationover41,000to100,000yearsistoogradualtobeobserved.However,theremaybeawaytotestitinotherstars:reddwarfs.Theircoresaremuchsmallerthanthatofthesun,andsoEhrlichbelievesthattheoscillationperiodscouldbeshortenoughtobeobserved.Hehasyettocalculatethepreciseperiodortheextentofvariationinbrightnesstobeexpected. 11NigelWeiss,asolarphysicistattheUniversityofCambridge,isfarfromconvinced.HedescribesEhrlich'sclaimsas"utterlyimplausible".EhrlichcountersthatWeiss'sopinionisbasedonthestandardsolarmodel,whichfailstotakeintoaccountthemagneticinstabilitiesthatcausethetemperaturefluctuations. Questions1-4 CompleteeachofthefollowingstatementswithOneorTwonamesofthescientistsfromtheboxbelow. WritetheappropriatelettersA-Einboxes1-4onyouranswersheet. A.AttilaGrandpierre B.Gáborágoston C.NeilEdwards D.NigelWeiss E.RobertEhrlich 1....claimsthereadimmerswitchinsidethesunthatcausesitsbrightnesstoriseandfallinperiodsaslongasthosebetweeniceagesonEarth. 2....calculatedthattheinternalsolarmagneticfieldscouldproduceinstabilitiesinthesolarplasma. 3....holdsthatMilankovitchcyclescaninducechangesinsolarheatingonEarthandthechangesareamplifiedonEarth. 4....doesn'tbelieveinEhrlich'sviewpointsatall. Questions5-9 Dothefollowingstatementsagreewiththeinformationgiveninthereadingpassage? Inboxes5-9onyouranswersheetwrite TRUEifthestatementistrueaccordingtothepassage FALSEifthestatementisfalseaccordingtothepassage NOTGIVENiftheinformationisnotgiveninthepassage 5.Theiceageschangedfrequencyfrom100,000to41,000yearsamillionyearsago. 6.ThesoleproblemthattheMilankovitchtheorycannotsolveistoexplainwhytheiceagefrequencyshouldshiftfromonetoanother. 7.Carbondioxidecanbelockedartificiallyintoseaicetoeliminatethegreenhouseeffect. 8.SomescientistsarenotreadytogiveuptheMilankovitchtheorythoughtheyhaven'tfiguredoutwhichmechanismsamplifythechangesinsolarheating. 9.BothEdwardsandEhrlichbelievethatthereisnopracticalwaytotestwhenthesolartemperatureoscillationbeginsandwhenends. Questions10-14 Completethenotesbelow. ChooseonesuitablewordfromtheReadingPassageaboveforeachanswer. Writeyouranswersinboxes10-14onyouranswersheet. Thestandardviewassumesthattheopposingpressuresofgravityandnuclearfusionsholdthetemperature...10...inthesun'sinterior,buttheslightchangesintheearth's...11...alterthetemperatureontheearthandcauseiceagesevery100,000years.ABritishscientist,however,challengesthisviewbyclaimingthattheinternalsolarmagnetic...12...caninducethetemperatureoscillationsinthesun'sinterior.Thesun'scoretemperatureoscillatesarounditsaveragetemperaturein...13...lastingeither100,000or41,000years.Andthe...14...interactionswithinthesun'smagneticfieldcouldflipthefluctuationsfromonecyclelengthtotheother,whichexplainswhytheiceageschangedfrequencyamillionyearsago.
5、FelicityLawrence ThursdayDecember28,2006 TheGuardian 1.ConsumersaretobepresentedwithtworivalnewyearadvertisingcampaignsastheFoodStandardsAgencygoespublicinitsbattlewiththeindustryoverthelabellingofunhealthyfoods. 2.TheGuardianhaslearnedthattheFSAwilllaunchaseriesof10-secondtelevisionadvertsinJanuarytellingshoppershowtofollowared,amberandgreentrafficlightlabellingsystemonthefrontoffoodpacks,whichisdesignedtotackleBritain’sobesityepidemic. 3.Thecampaignisadirectresponsetoaconcertedattemptbyleadingfoodmanufacturersandretailers,includingKellogg’sandTesco,toderailthesystem.Theindustryfearsthattrafficlightswoulddemoniseentirecategoriesoffoodsandcouldseriouslydamagethemarketforthosethatarefatty,saltyorhighinsugar. 4.TheUKmarketforbreakfastcerealsisworth£1.27bnayearandthemanufacturersfearitwillbeseverelydentedifredlightlabelsareputonpackagingdrawingattentiontothefactthatthemajorityarehighinsaltand/orsugar. 5.Theindustryisplanningamajormarketingcampaignforacompetinglabellingsystemwhichavoidscolour-codinginfavourofinformationaboutthepercentageof"guidelinedailyamounts"(GDAs)offat,saltandsugarcontainedintheirproducts. 6.Thebattleforthenation’sdietcomesasnewrulesontelevisionadvertisingcomeintoforceinJanuarywhichwillbaradvertsforunhealthyfoodsfromcommercialbreaksduringprogrammesaimedatchildren.SourcesattheTVregulatorsarebracedforalegalchallengefromtheindustryandhavedescribedthelobbyingeffortstoblockanynewadbanorcolour-codedlabellingas"themostferociouswe’veeverexperienced". 7.Ofcom’schiefexecutive,EdRichards,said:"Wearepreparedtofaceuptoanylegalactionfromtheindustry,butweverymuchhopeitwillnotbenecessary."TheFSAsaiditwasexpectinganonslaughtfromtheindustryinJanuary.SeniorFSAofficialssaidthemanufacturers’effortstoundermineitsproposalsonlabellingcouldthreatentheagency’scredibility. 8.TerrenceCollis,FSAdirectorofcommunications,dismissedclaimsthattheproposalswerenotbasedonscience."WehavesomeofthemostrespectedscientistsinEurope,bothwithintheFSAandinourindependentadvisorycommittees.ItisunjustifiedandnonsensicaltoattacktheFSA’sscientificreputationandtotrytoundermineitscredibility." 9.TheFSAisunderstoodtohavebriefeditsadagency,United,beforeChristmas,andwillaimtoairadsthatare"non-confrontational,humorousandfactual"asacounterweighttoindustry’seffortsaboutthesametime.Theagency,however,willhaveatinyfractionofthebudgetavailabletotheindustry. 10.GavinNeath,chairmanofUnileverUKandpresidentoftheFoodandDrinkFederation,hassaidthattheindustryhasmadeenormousprogressbutcouldnotacceptred"stop"signsonitsfood. 11.AlastairSykes,chiefexecutiveofNestléUK,saidthatundertheFSAproposalsallhiscompany’sconfectioneryandmostofitscerealswouldscoreared."Arewesayingpeopleshouldn’teatconfectionery?We’redrivenbyconsumersandwhattheywant,andmuchofwhatwedohasbeentomakeourproductshealthier,"hesaid. 12.ChrisWermann,directorofcommunicationsatKellogg’s,said:"Inprinciplewecouldneveraccepttrafficlightlabelling." 13.TherivallabellingschemeintroducedbyKellogg’s,Danone,Unilever,Nestlé,KraftandTescoandnowfavouredby21manufacturers,usesanindustry-devisedsystembasedonidentifyingGDAsofkeynutrients.TescosaysithastestedbothtrafficlightsandGDAlabelsinitsstoresandthatthelatterincreasedsalesofhealthierfoods. 14.ButtheFSAsaiditcouldnotlivewiththisGDAsystemalonebecauseitwas"notscientific"oreasyforshopperstounderstandataglance. Questions1-6 AnswerthequestionsbelowusingNOMORETHANTHREEWORDSfromthepassageforeachanswer. 1.Whenwillinstructionsbegivenonreadingthecolor-codedlabels? 2.Wherecancustomersfindtheredlightlabels? 3.WhatproblemistheFSAtryingtohandlewiththelabelingsystem? 4.Whichproductsellswellbutmaynotbehealthy? 5.Whatinformation,accordingtothemanufacturers,canbelabeledonproducts? 6.Whatcannotbeadvertisedduringchildren’sprogrammes? Questions7-13 Usetheinformationinthetexttomatchthepeople(listedA-E)withtheopinions(listed7-13)below.Writetheappropriateletter(A-E)forquestions1-7. NBYoumayuseanylettermorethanonce. AEdRichard BTerrenceCollis CGavinNeath DAlastairSykes EChrisWermann 7.Generallywewillnotagreetousetheredlightlabels. 8.ItisunreasonabletodoubtifFSAistrustworthy. 9.Wearetryingtomeetourconsumers’needs. 10.Thefoodindustryhasbeenimprovinggreatly. 11.Thecolor-codedlabelingsystemisscientific. 12.OurproductswillbelabeledunhealthybytheFSA. 13.Wearereadytoconfrontthemanufacturers.
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